• The narrative formulas in cinema and literature: a paradigmatic proposal
Lauro Zavala


This paper presents a general overview of the narratological tradition in order to pose the existence of narrative strategies that are common to every narration. Terminative theory has received much more attention than inchoative theory. This paper presents a system of narrative formulas which are useful for studying the structural nature of fundamental narrative strategies, such as narrative suspense, surprise, guilt transference, and conjectural fiction, as well as the structural strategies of classic, modern, and postmodern beginnings and endings. The examples belong in Alfred Hitchcock’s films and 20th century novels and short stories.


Narrative Formulas; Inchoative Theory; Terminative Theory; Film; Literature

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DOI: 10.5354/0719-1529.2016.45419